Introduction into the
Symmetry of Molecules

Science and Fun
Spectroscopic Tools

R. Borsdorf, F.Dietz, G. Leonhardt, J. Reinhold

Electronic conversion: St. Thomas

  Preface (german)     Table of Content   Remarks    Imprint

This course was developed as a didactic textbook for academic teaching in the early 70s. The possibility of interactive remote communication provided by the internet inspired us to design an electronic version .

What you need:

To complete this teaching material, you only need an HTML 4.0 capable web browser (you might run into troubles with Netscape 4.x or older versions). It is essential that your browser is Javascript enabled. If you want to view 3D structures of molecules, the installation of the free Chime Plugin is recommended as well as a VRML viewer.

This icon indicates structures that are available as pdb files (to be viewed with the Chime Plugin).

This icon points to a VRML model.

All structures were optimised towards their thermodynamic equilibrium using the program Alchemy2000 and the MM3 force field.


Your responses will guide you throughout the course from page to page. If at any stage you would like to skip a page, the blue forward arrow will take you to the next page and if you would like to go to the previous page, click on the red back arrow

Gap exercises:

Gap exercises are short texts where keywords have been left out for you to fill in. You can find the correct answers either by clicking <Example> or they will be shown at the beginning of the next training step.

Multiple Choice Exercises:

Throughout the textbook you will find multiple choice questions. Wrong answers will point you to sections in the course where revision would be recommended. Correct answers will take you to the next page.

Any feedback, corrections, new ideas would be very much appreciated.

Enjoy symmetry!

Go to the first step!

(many thanks to A. Treumann for the translation of this page)